The Modern Psychology


Sigmund Freud, the founding father of psychoanalysis revolutionized the modern psychology and character study. Freud posited a structural model of the mind in which id, ego, and superego (the three components of the human mind) interacted and wrestled with each other for dominance. The result of this constant struggle is the whole of each human’s behavior.

Emerging Modern Psychology!

Freud’s life work was dominated by his attempts to find ways of penetrating this often subtle and elaborate camouflage that obscures the hidden structure and processes of personality.

Carl Jung, a younger colleague of Freud’s, categorized mental functioning again into basic categories: sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling. Jung believed that although we could develop all functions, his experience working with clients was that sustainable mental health was the result of using and leading with our natural “lead function.” Jung’s theory of psychological types is perhaps the most influential creators in personality typology, and it has inspired a number of different theories, including our own.

Sigmund Freud

One of Jung’s key contributions was the development of the concept of Introversion and Extraversion – he theorized that each of us falls into one of these two categories, either focusing on the internal world (Introvert) or the outside world (Extravert). Besides Introversion and Extraversion, Jung also coined several additional concepts. The ones most relevant to us are the so-called Judging functions (either Thinking or Feeling) and Perceiving functions (either Sensing or Intuition).

According to Jung, each person prefers one of these cognitive functions and finds it most natural to rely on it in everyday situations. However, other functions also have their place and can emerge depending on the circumstances.

The Spark

According to Jung’s theory of psychological types [Jung, 1971], people can be characterized by their preference of general attitude:

Extraverted (E)

Source of energy comes from the person’s outer world

Sensing (S)

Taking care of any information receives from the external world

Thinking (T)

Processing of information and taking the decision by logical thoughts

Introverted (I)

Source of energy comes from the person’s inner world

Intuition (N)

Taking care of any information receives from the internal world

Feeling (F)

Processing of information and taking the final decision by felt emotions

The three areas of preferences introduced by Jung are dichotomies (i.e. bipolar dimensions where each pole represents a different preference). Jung also proposed that in a person one of the four functions above is dominant – either a function of perception or a function of judging.

The New Influence

Isabel Briggs Myers, a researcher and practitioner of Jung’s theory, proposed to see the judging-perceiving relationship as a fourth dichotomy influencing personality type [Briggs Myers, 1980]:

Introverted (I)

Source of energy comes from the person’s inner world

Introverted (I)

Source of energy comes from the person’s inner world

Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Our core theory of science is based on the foundation of Jungian typology theory and MBTI personality inventory.

All possible permutations of preferences in the 4 dichotomies below yield 16 different combinations, or personality types, representing which of the two poles in each of the four dichotomies dominates in a person, thus defining 16 different personality types. Each personality type can be assigned a 4 letter acronym of the corresponding combination of preferences.


The source and direction of a person’s energy expression. An extravert’s source and direction of energy expression are mainly in the external world, while an introvert has a source of energy mainly in their own internal world.


The method by which someone perceives information. The sensing means that a person mainly believes information he or she receives directly from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly information he or she receives from the internal or imaginative world.


How a person processes information. Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, he or she makes a decision based on emotion, i.e. based on what they feel they should do.


How a person implements the information he or she has processed. The judging means that a person organizes all of his life events and, as a rule, sticks to his plans. Perceiving means that he or she is inclined to improvise and explore alternative options.

The first letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the first letter of the preference of general attitude – “E” for extraversion and “I” for introversion.
The third letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to preference within the thinking-feeling pair: “T” stands for thinking and “F” stands for feeling.
The second letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the preference within the sensing-intuition dimension: “S” stands for sensing and “N” stands for intuition.
The fourth letter in the personality type acronym corresponds a person’s preference within the judging-perceiving pair: “J” for judging and “P” for perception.